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Publications


Documents of the CEPE

Poverty, Inequality and Social Exclusion in Québec: 2018 Progress Report

This progress report brings together the most up-to-date data on poverty and inequality in Québec and provides the results of interregional, interprovincial and international comparisons of the most recent low income rates according to various thresholds. Simulations of typical cases make it possible to observe changes in poverty over time according to family situation. In conclusion, the report presents various inequality measures and various indicators of social exclusion.

New!
The CÉPE annual progress report now includes an update of data first published in the advisory opinion on measuring social exclusion associated with poverty that was published by the CÉPE in 2015 (Avis sur la mesure de l'exclusion sociale associée à la pauvreté : des indicateurs à suivre, 2015, French only). Going forward the annual progress report will include all the indicators of social exclusion recommended in that Advisory Opinion.

Previously published progress reports

Advisory opinion on measuring social exclusion associated with poverty

The purpose of this advisory opinion is to propose indicators for monitoring social exclusion.

Certain observations stand out from others when the nine indicators that have been developed are used:

  • The low-income population is generally at much greater risk of experiencing social exclusion situations or mechanisms related to all five dimensions identified: material conditions, health, work and employment, education and networks.
  • Several indicators seem to indicate the absence of deterioration or even a slight amelioration of certain aspects of social exclusion associated with poverty since 2000. However the stability suggested should not be interpreted as an indication of any significant improvement in people’s situations.
  • Poverty is a major risk factor for experiencing social exclusion just as, conversely, exclusion itself is a significant impediment to getting out of poverty. Poverty and social exclusion exist in combination and can mutually reinforce each other.

Avis sur la mesure de l'exclusion sociale associée à la pauvreté (French only, PDF, 2,8 MB)

Avis sur la mesure de l'exclusion sociale associée à la pauvreté – Document synthèse (French only, PDF, 2,3 MB)

 

Taking the Measure of Poverty: Proposed Indicators of Poverty, Inequality and Social Exclusion to Measure Progress in Québec

One of the mandates of the Centre d’étude sur la pauvreté et l’exclusion is to advise the Minister of Labour, Employment and Social Solidarity on measures and indicators of poverty, inequality and social exclusion for measuring Québec’s progress in implementing the Act to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion.

This document constitutes an initial recommendation to that end:

Report on low incomes in Québec

(Centre d'étude sur la pauvreté et l'exclusion, 2008)

This document describes poverty trends in recent years and the proportion of low-income family units among Quebecers, the gap between their income and low-income thresholds, the duration of their situation, and their main sociodemographic and economic characteristics. More detailed information is provided about unattached persons and last-resort financial assistance recipients.

The document was commissioned by the Comité consultatif de lutte contre la pauvreté et l’exclusion sociale Link to external site. with a view to improving public understanding of what it means to be in a situation of poverty and social exclusion.

Highlights:

  • The low income rate has dropped since the late 1990s.
  • The Montréal region has the highest low-income rate, and the Chaudière-Appalaches region, the lowest.
  • Low income is generally a temporary phenomenon, but is persistent in certain segments of the population, including single-parent families and unattached persons (in Canada).
  • Nearly half of low-incomers are unattached persons.
  • Slightly more than half of low-income family units have no earnings.
  • The family units composed of an unattached person post the widest gap between income and low-income thresholds. This is also the case with last-resort financial assistance recipients, notably, those with no limitations to employment.

Recueil statistique sur la pauvreté et les inégalités socioéconomiques au Québec

Published jointly by the Institut de la statistique du Québec (ISQ) and the Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale (MESS), the Recueil statistique sur la pauvreté et les inégalités socioéconomiques au Québec (Morin 2006) groups together the main indicators in this field of study taken from the Inventaire des indicateurs de pauvreté et d’exclusion sociale (Morasse 2005). An invaluable research tool, it constitutes a reliable empirical benchmark to be used to measure over time the improvement or deterioration of the situation of persons and families living in poverty (historical transversal data), and also their relative position with respect to other groups in society.

Composed of more than 20 indicators calculated according to different conceptual approaches and methodologies, this can be used for assessing various statistical tools and determining which appear to be more productive. The indicators in this report were classed in three main categories.

  • First are the poverty indicators  on the incidence of this phenomenon (either from a point of view of income or expenditures), on its gravity and also on related government transfers (particularly social assistance).
  • Second is the impact of socioeconomic indicators of inequality using indicators for the distribution of income in society.
  • Finally, two composite indicators deal with the problem of the most disadvantaged by combining economic statistics (income, expenditures, etc.) and social statistics (isolation with respect to social networks, social referral groups, etc.).
  • Recueil statistique sur la pauvreté et les inégalités socioéconomiques au Québec (French only, PDF, 274 MB)

Inventaire des indicateurs de pauvreté et d’exclusion sociale

Published jointly by the Institut de la statistique du Québec and the ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale (MESS), this inventory of poverty and social exclusion indicators (Morasse 2005) gives an overview of the many ways of defining and measuring the phenomenon of poverty. It has two objectives: to cover all aspects of  the multidimensional phenomenon that is poverty and to open new avenues by presenting not only indicators calculated for Québec, but also those used elsewhere that could be the object of future compilations.

Last update: 2019-01-30 Top of Page

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